The following is a quote on North Korea’s agricultural policy.
Farmers survived the famine much more skillfully than urban dwellers. Although they worked on collective farms, where harvests became state property, they were in a position to hide and secretly store food, sell it for cash, and exchange it for clothing and other necessities. Was.
Following the famine, the collapse of the food distribution system, and the rise of the private market, the government had no choice but to offer farmers higher purchase prices and more rewards for higher yields. In 2002 private farming on small farms was legalized. This has increased the market trade of crops harvested by private farmers, which in turn has increased the influence of merchants and the independence of productive farmers. (Brain Harden, Escape from the 14th Office)
“To be honest, the nation has no money for the national budget for two years without money,” Kim Jong Il complained in public. As part of his government’s declaration in 1999 of “first armed politics,” or the military priority policy, the Korean People’s Army, which had more than one million soldiers, had to secure three meals a day, There has been an aggressive move to seize a significant amount of all the food harvested.
“When it’s time to harvest, soldiers land on the farm on military trucks and take them away,” said Gwon Tae-jin. The northernmost part of North Korea is a historically difficult area to secure food, and although peasants are considered dissidents, troops have seized one-quarter of the region’s gross grain production. In other regions, the rate is between 5% and 7%.
Throughout the harvest, the army garrisoned soldiers on state farms scattered throughout 3,000 places throughout the country so that workers on state farms did not cheat the military. When tens of thousands of urban residents were rushed to the farm to help with the autumn harvest, soldiers watched them not to steal food. Corruption began to spread because soldiers were stationed on farms. Farm managers seize soldiers’ money, soldiers look down on massive food theft, and the stolen goods are then sold to private markets. The struggle between bribery soldier groups that fought with bribery turned into a beating or shooting. (Ibid.)
The biggest mismanagement would be the socialization of agriculture with agricultural lands being “owned by all people.” In 1955, North Korea, aiming to build a socialist state, banned the private ownership of farmland and the private management of agriculture by promoting the co-operation of agriculture. He further promoted this policy. In 1964, he implemented agricultural management under the leadership of the state in order to “own the entire people” of agricultural land, that is, nationalize.
People engaged in agriculture have been switched from an income method based on individual abilities and diligence to an “equal distribution” system for all co-operative members, and whether they have worked or not, have or may not have the ability. The same situation has led to a decrease in farmers’ motivation to work, which has been a major factor in reducing agricultural production. In addition, the development of heavy industry at the center of North Korea’s socialist economy has neglected investment in the agricultural sector, reduced the productivity of agriculture-related companies, and lacked the supply of fertilizers and pesticides. However, this has led to a decrease in agricultural production due to weight loss and a large number of agricultural pests.
To compensate for the decline in agricultural production, the North Korean government encouraged terraced fields that plow to the top of the mountains, but even a small amount of rain would cause the fields to run off, and the rains would have flashed down the mountain, and many downstream. Brought disaster.
Much of the country has been vulnerable to storms and floods. The major storms of 1995 and 1996 were largely caused by such agricultural policies. (Kim Jongjeon “Tumangang of Wailing”)
Farmers are not only engaged in the main business, but are also subject to popular movement. For example, the Labor Newspaper wrote as follows, stating that the campaign to create the “March 16th Anniversary Model Family” was “greatly successful” in Jiangjiang.
“This success is due to the wisdom and guidance of our dear Comrade Kim Jong Il who showed the direction and method of the movement and who was actively coached. Actively developing a struggle to enhance the culture of the country, every field is as beautiful as a flower garden, any agricultural equipment is handled properly, construction sites, houses and surroundings, villages are properly ordered according to the requirements of hygiene and culture, He said that we had to take revolutionary steps to solve all the issues that would bring about a rural cultural revolution. ”
According to the newspaper, the key staff and workers of agriculture also said, “We are eager to support the party’s plans and work to create a ‘socialist cultural village’ that can make the village beautiful and rich.” “Standed together” in a campaign to create a commemorative model home. ” This movement is also named after the date when Kim Jong Il was instructed.
Under the leadership of the Local Party Committee, peasants deeply understand the significance and importance of the struggle to develop “own workplaces, houses, and villages” under the guidance of the local party committee. In order to do so, philosophy education was started, and briefings were held at work and on the street.
First, so-called “model homes” were created in cities, guns, and cooperative farms, and activities were conducted to spread the experience. The movement to create an “exemplary home” was then carried out on a large scale, and the staff in the leadership position compiled the results of the exercise every month and period, from “exemplary home” to “exemplary village,” In order to shift to “agriculture,” the scale of the movement was expanded.
In Chagang-do Usi-gun, as part of the campaign, farmers who had been dispersed here and there were moved by farmers to the foot of hills that are not suitable for agriculture, with the aim of “improving farmland.” Rural residents also reviewed their land plans, enclosed all homes with the same fence, planted more than five trees in each home’s yard, and managed roads. At the cooperative farm in the village of Waun-ri, Jonchon-gun, each group was set up with an office to advertise the knowledge of agricultural science and technology, and improved threshing areas, nurseries and kindergartens.
As a result of this movement, seven state-owned farms and cooperative farms now named “ March 16 Memorial Model Farm ” and 181 villages with the title “ March 16 Memorial Model Village ” There are 32901 households with the name “exemplary”, 737 households awarded this title twice, and 303 households three times. (Alexander Zhebin, The Kim Dynasty I See)
Rural residents are involved in collecting herbs and plants, and in the spring, collecting edible wildflowers and plants. Because they lack vitamins. Among the tasks of mobilizing and engaging rural children under the supervision of their teachers, the most common are weeding in the fields and laying pebbles on the edge of the large motorway in the village to assist them. There are works to show boundaries and work to arrange pebbles around the roots of trees that are growing on both sides of these roads. (Ibid.)
The policy of livestock promotion as a mass movement launched in 1981 mandated that dedicated leisure be devoted to agricultural work.
According to the Labor Newspaper, a household must raise two pigs and five chickens a year. It is not difficult to find a place to keep pigs and chickens in rural areas, but in the suburbs of the city you can keep chickens on balconies to prevent them from escaping, or to store small pieces of junk such as briquettes or kimchi barrels. Chicken limbs must be tied together in a barn.
In urban and rural areas, pigs and poultry raising schemes are provided by senior agencies, but are not required. The regional office will apply for private ownership of the chicks to the state, taking into account the capabilities of the people’s group leaders and each group. Some or all of the pigs and chickens raised in the process are allowed to be sold to the nation and provided to the food of the family, but pigs are aside from chickens due to the existing meat distribution system. It must not be sold in the market.
Have the state buy it, but some of the meat can be split a little. Private pigs can only be killed in state facilities. The movement’s experience was particularly widely advertised in the early 1980s. For example, in a newspaper at the time, Kim Chem was encouraged by the success of his neighbor, and his wife, mother, children and other family members “worked on pig farming with a new determination” for two years in 1982. The pigs were sent to the builders of the Arc de Triomphe in Pyongyang. At this time, he received no assistance and obtained the material for building a pighouse independently, planted pumpkin for feed on unsuitable cultivated land around the house, and worked without a day off.
“Because of the lack of tools, he started pig farming with his bare hands and produced large amounts of pork. This demonstrates that the party that developed the movement was right,” the Labor Newspaper wrote.
Swine raising is also underway at large construction sites. When I visited the construction site of a hydroelectric power plant, I saw a poor pighouse just surrounding a depression in the construction site, with no small shelter around the wooden shelves and no facilities to remove dirt. (Ibid.)
Since 1998, North Korea has developed a potato cultivation area in the northern mountainous area, and has adopted an agricultural policy to gradually expand it. Here, extensive investment was made, and large numbers of discharged soldiers were released as troops to the mountains.
It was the start of a potato staple food program in North Korea. The plan is still ongoing, sending the brides to the discharge members for marriage and creating a number of discharge villages.
This policy has disappointed many soldiers who thought they could return to their home parents and return to their homes, leading to lost productivity. (Jun Shimizu, “North Korean Army”)